2013, 34(1): 70-74.
海洋捕捞业是碳汇渔业之一,人类通过收获渔获物将食物链/网传递的海洋植物光合作用固定的碳移出水体,在海洋碳汇中发挥着重要的作用。根据对海洋捕捞业碳汇功能的评估方法,得出1980~2000年间渤海捕捞业的年固碳量是283~1 008万t,黄海捕捞业的年固碳量是361~2 613万t。尽管加大捕捞产量增加了从海洋生态系统移出浮游植物的固碳量,但随着捕捞业的高速发展,其碳汇功能却被削弱了,黄渤海捕捞业的年固碳量最大分别减少了23%和27%。而且由于资源量的下降,封存于水体和海底的碳减少,不利于捕捞业发挥可持续的碳汇功能。渤海2009年增殖放流的中国对虾使捕捞业增加1.66万t的固碳量,因此,需要采取包括增殖放流在内的一些措施来恢复和增强海洋捕捞业的碳汇功能,最终形成资源养护型的捕捞业。
Marine fishing industry is one kind of fishery carbon sinks. The carbon, which is fixed by phytoplankton and transported through the food chain/web, is removed from the sea by harvesting. According to the evaluation of carbon sink by marine fishing industry, there were about 2.83~10.08 million tons and 3.61~26.13 million tons of carbon removed annually from the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea respectively, during 1980~2000. Although carbon sink increased with fishing production, destruction of the marine ecosystem weakened the contribution of fishing to carbon sink. So, carbon sink by fishing in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea reduced 23% and 27%, respectively. At the same time, marine resources decline was a disadvantage to sustainability of carbon sink by fishing. However,by enhancement and release of Fenneropenaeus orientalis, fishing carbon sink in the Bohai Sea increased 1.66×104 tons in 2009. Hence, measures including enhancement and release should be taken to restore and improve carbon sink by marine fishing industry.