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2013, 34(1): 1-11.

多重压力胁迫下近海生态系统与多营养层次综合养殖

1. 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 碳汇渔业实验室, 青岛 266071

2. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所, 264003

收稿日期:2013-02-02
修回日期:2013-02-18

基金项目:   国家重点基础研究发展规划(973)项目(2011CB409805)、国家"十二五"科技支撑计划(2011BAD13B05)、国家自然科学基金项目(41006074)和国家贝类产业技术体系(CARS-48)共同资助 

关键词: 近海生态系统 , 多重压力胁迫 , 黄海大海洋生态系 , 适应性管理对策 , 多营养层次综合水产养殖

Impacts of multiple stressors on coastal ocean ecosystems and Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture

Received Date:2013-02-02
Accepted Date:2013-02-18

Keywords: Coastal ocean ecosystems , Multiple stressors , Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem , Adaptive strategies in ecosystem-based management , Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture

近半个多世纪以来,在过度开发利用、气候变化(包括全球变暖和自然波动)以及环境污染等多重压力胁迫下近海生态系统发生了前所未有的变化,其中黄海大海洋生态系最具代表性。它主要表现在生物多样性和生态系统生产力的变化;生态系统产出质量下降,如个体较大、营养层次较高、重要的底层经济种类被个体较小、营养层次较低、中上层及经济价值低的种类所替代。研究分析表明,在多重压力胁迫下,近海生态系统及其变化受控于多因素作用的控制机制,导致生态系统变化的复杂性、不确定性,并难以甄别和管理。多营养层次综合水产养殖是应对多重压力胁迫下近海生态系统显著变化的一条有效的途径。文内论述了发展多营养层次综合养殖的科学基础,介绍了在黄海桑沟湾构建的多营养层次综合养殖模式及其效果,评估了多营养层次综合养殖的碳收支与生态服务功能。最后,在结语中指出:展望未来,多营养层次综合养殖模式的多样化发展需要特别予以关注,需要得到更多基础研究的支持。除了进一步加强养殖种类的生物学和区域生态学研究,还需要加强养殖生态系统的生物地球化学循环和水动力学过程研究,关注海洋酸化对养殖生物的影响,多营养层次综合养殖系统对海洋酸化的响应及其应采取的适应性对策。

Over the past half-century, the coastal ocean ecosystems have changed greatly under the multiple stressors(including over-exploitation and utilization, climate change such as global warming and natural fluctuations,and environmental pollution),in which, the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem is the most representative one. It is mainly manifested in the changes of biodiversity and productivity of ecosystem; as a result, larger, higher trophic level, and commercially important demersal species were replaced by smaller, lower trophic level, pelagic, less-valuable species. The analysis showed that the coastal ocean ecosystems as well as their changes will be controlled by a mechanism of multiple factors, and it leads to the complexity and uncertainty of the ecosystem changes, and difficult to identify and manage. Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture(IMTA) is an effective way to respond to multiple stressors for coastal ocean ecosystems. This paper discusses the scientific basis for development of IMTA and introduces the IMTA practice and its effect in Sanggou Bay located in the Yellow Sea. And also, carbon budget and ecological service function of IMTA was assessed. For future development, the diversification of IMTA model needs special attention,and gets more support from basic research. In addition to the biology and regional ecology of culture species, study on the biogeochemical cycling and hydrodynamic processes in mariculture ecosystem also need to be strengthened. Moreover, the impact of ocean acidification on cultured organisms and the adaptive strategies in ecosystem-based management should be further concerned.

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多重压力胁迫下近海生态系统与多营养层次综合养殖