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2022, 43(2): 228-235. doi: 10.19663/j.issn2095-9869.20201228001

山东4种常见虾虾头品质分析与评价

1. 齐鲁工业大学(山东省科学院) 山东省科学院生物研究所 山东省人类疾病斑马鱼模型与药物筛选工程技术研究中心 山东 济南 250103;

2. 山东省生物工程技术创新中心 山东 菏泽 274000;

3. 齐鲁工业大学(山东省科学院) 化学与制药学院 山东 济南 250353

收稿日期:2020-12-28
修回日期:2021-01-12

基金项目:   山东省重点研发计划项目(2019GSF107053)和齐鲁工业大学(山东省科学院)青年博士合作基金项目(2017BSH2017)共同资助 

关键词: 虾头 , 成分分析 , 品质评价

Analysis and Evaluation of Shrimp Head Quality from Four Common Shrimp Species in Shandong Province, China

1. Engineering Research Center of Zebrafish Models for Human Diseases and Drug Screening of Shandong Province, Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Ji'nan, Shandong 250103, China;

2. Bioengineering Technology Innovation Center of Shandong Province, Heze, Shandong 274000, China;

3. School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Ji'nan, Shandong 250353, China

Received Date:2020-12-28
Accepted Date:2021-01-12

Keywords: Shrimp head , Component analysis , Quality evaluation

为了充分利用虾头废弃物资源,本研究以山东4种常见虾——克氏原鳌虾(Procambarusclarkia)、日本对虾(Penaeus japonicus)、中国对虾(Penaeus orientalis)及凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeusvanmamei)鲜虾头为原料,测定了不同来源虾头的蛋白质、氨基酸、磷脂、虾青素和甲壳素含量,从而对这4种虾头品质进行营养成分分析及品质评价。结果显示,4种虾头副产物所占比例较高,其中,日本对虾、中国对虾和凡纳滨对虾3种对虾虾头占比达到40%左右,克氏原鳌虾虾头占比甚至达到85.52%; 4种虾头蛋白质含量丰富,约占鲜虾头质量的12.47%~14.91%; 4种虾头蛋白中人体必需氨基酸含量达到40%以上,且鲜、甜味氨基酸含量较高;日本对虾、中国对虾及凡纳滨对虾3种对虾虾头中磷脂含量远高于克氏原鳌虾,达到12.38~15.00 mg/g,而克氏原螯虾仅为3.39 mg/g;虾青素含量以凡纳滨对虾和日本对虾虾头中含量较高,分别达到68.46和61.62 μg/g,中国对虾为41.42 μg/g,克氏原鳌虾则为30.71 μg/g;而克氏原鳌虾虾头的甲壳素含量约为3种对虾虾头的3倍,达到4.67%左右。由此可见,4种虾头中含有丰富的蛋白质和氨基酸,而不同品种虾头中磷脂、虾青素及甲壳素等成分含量差异较大,可针对不同来源的虾头进行有针对性的高附加值成分的开发利用。

To make full use of shrimp head waste,the protein,amino acid,phospholipid,astaxanthin,and chitin contents were determined from the fresh heads of four shrimp species,and the quality of the different shrimp heads was compared and evaluated.These shrimp heads came from four common species in the Shandong Province:Procambarus clarkia,Penaeus japonicas,Penaeus orientalis,and Penaeus vanmamei.The results showed that the weight ratio of the head waste to the whole shrimp weight for the three penaeids reached approximately 40%.The highest weight ratio (85.52%) was observed for P.clarkia. All shrimp heads were rich in protein,ranging from 12.47%~14.91% of the fresh shrimp head weight.The essential amino acid contents in the shrimp head proteins of the four species reached more than 40%,and the umami and sweet amino acid contents were also high.Therefore,the shrimp heads of these four species are suitable for the development and utilization of protein hydrolysate/peptide amino acids.The phospholipid contents were 12.38~15.00 mg/g for the three penaeid species heads,and only 3.39 mg/g for the P.clarkia heads.The relatively higher astaxanthin content was 68.46 μg/g for P.vanmamei and 61.62 μg/g for P.japonicas,followed by 41.42 μg/g for P.orientalis and 30.71 μg/g for P.clarkia,respectively.Therefore,the penaeid heads can be used as a raw material for extracting phospholipids and astaxanthin.However,the chitin content in the head of P.clarkia was about 3-fold more that of the three penaeid species,reaching about 4.67%,making it suitable for the preparation of chitin-related products.Findings of this study show that the by-products of the shrimp heads of these four species are rich in protein and amino acids,while the phospholipid,astaxanthin,and chitin contents varied significantly in the shrimp heads.Therefore,high value-added bioactive components can be developed from the shrimp heads of different species and may have a wide range of application.

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山东4种常见虾虾头品质分析与评价