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2022, 37(1): 104-112. doi: 10.16535/j.cnki.dlhyxb.2021-097

淡水池塘养殖尾水处理系统对氮磷的净化效果

上海市水产研究所 上海市水产技术推广站, 上海 200433

收稿日期:2021-04-20

基金项目:   上海市科技兴农重点攻关项目(2019-02-08-00-07-F01130)  上海市农业领军人才项目(沪委农办2018-60号)  上海长江口主要水生动物人工繁育工程技术研究中心项目(13DZ2251800) 

关键词: 养殖尾水 , 氮磷 , 沿程 , 季节 , 净化效果

Nitrogen and phosphorus purification effect of aquaculture wastewater treatment system in freshwater culture ponds

Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute, Shanghai Fisheries Technical Extension Station, Shanghai 200433, China

Received Date:2021-04-20

Keywords: aquaculture wastewater , nitrogen and phosphorus , along the way , season , purification effect

为开展池塘养殖尾水达标排放处理技术的研究,以湿地(芦苇、香蒲、菱角)、水生动物(梭鱼)净化塘、水生植物(凤眼莲、蕹菜)净化塘作为净化功能区,构建池塘养殖尾水处理系统,按照养殖池塘与尾水处理系统面积比为9.8:1设置,在试验周期内,对13个养殖池塘(5 hm2)排放养殖尾水中总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)进行尾水处理系统各级沿程监测。结果表明:2019-2020年,养殖尾水处理系统进水中TN、TP质量浓度分别为(2.025±1.031)、(0.627±0.734) mg/L,经处理后排放水中TN、TP质量浓度分别为(1.323±0.427)、(0.427±0.369) mg/L,两年间TN、TP平均去除率分别为34.67%、31.89%,系统整体对TN、TP的净化效果显著;系统各级沿程对TN、TP的去除均符合一级动力学,养殖尾水依次流经净化功能区,去除率逐级升高。研究表明:水生动物净化塘对TN的净化效果显著,多种水生植物组合的净化塘对TN、TP的净化效果均显著;随季节演变,养殖尾水处理系统对较高含量的TN、TP仍能保持良好的净化效果,水生植物净化塘在秋季对TN、TP净化发挥了关键作用。

In order to carry out research on discharge technology of pond aquaculture wastewater up to the standard,an aquaculture wastewater treatment system (AWTS) was established at a surface area ratio of culture pond to AWTS=9.8:1.The AWTS was made up of a surface flow wetland (SFW) in which reed Phragmites communis,or cattail Typha orientalis was planted at initial density of 15 individuals/m2 in March,or water chestnut Trapa bispinosa was planted at initial density of 1.2 individuals/m2 in February;aquatic animal purification pond (PP1) in which mullet Liza haematocheila was reared at stocking density of 0.39 individuals/m2 in March,polycultured with a few of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus,silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis,and aquatic plant purification pond (PP2) in which water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes was planted in May and water spinach Ipomoea aquatica was planted in August,polycultured with a few of black carp,silver carp and bighead carp with an area ratio of SFW:PP1:PP2=1:4.5:3.6.During the test period,the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) discharged from the wastewater of 13 culture ponds (5 hm2) were monitored between the AWTS and the aquaculture ponds.The results showed that TN concentration was shown to be (2.025±1.031) mg/L in the inlet of the AWTS,and the discharge TN concentration of (1.323±0.427) mg/L after treatment,with average removal rate of 34.67% in two years from 2019 to 2020.The inlet TP concentration was found to be (0.627±0.734) mg/L,and the discharge TP concentration (0.427±0.369) mg/L,with the average removal of 31.89%.There was remarkable purification effect of TN and TP in the AWTS,with the removal of TN and TP at all levels along the system being conformed to the first-order dynamic removal model.The removal rates of TN and TP were increased step by step when the aquaculture wastewater flowed through the surface flow wetland,the PP1 and PP2.It was found that the purification pond dominated by aquatic animal had significant purification effects on TN,and the purification ponds combined with multiple aquatic plants had significant purification effects on TN and TP.With the extension of seasons,the AWTS still maintained a good purification effect on higher TN and TP.The aquatic plants purification pond played a key role in the purification of TN and TP in autumn.

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淡水池塘养殖尾水处理系统对氮磷的净化效果